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Philosophy: The Basics
A huge subject broken down into manageable chunks
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  By Movement / School

A philosophical movement is the appearance of (or the increased popularity of) a specific school of philosophy, an identifiable tradition of philosophy, or a marked change in philosophical thought on a particular subject. A school is a group of people, especially philosophers, artists, or writers, whose thought, work, or style demonstrates a common origin or influence or unifying belief. These are the famous “-isms” of philosophy.

A movement or school may represent the broad views of many individual philosophers, even if they may not agree entirely in all respects, so it is more a diffusely organized or heterogeneous group of philosophers tending toward or favouring a generalized common goal. It may also consist of intellectual thought by several individuals on several related ideas or doctrines, and the distinction between schools or movements, and doctrines or theories is sometimes blurred.

For convenience, the major movements and schools can be classified under three main sub-headings:

Ancient
Medieval
Modern

Within these, the major movements and schools include:

Ancient:
Aristotelianism
Atomism
Cynicism
Eleatic School
Ephesian School
Epicureanism
Hedonism
Milesian School
Neo-Platonism
Platonism
Pluralism
Pythagoreanism
Skepticism
Sophism
Stoicism
 
Medieval:
Averroism
Avicennism
Illuminationism
Scholasticism
Scotism
Thomism
Modern:
Analytic Philosophy
British Empiricism
Continental Philosophy
Deconstructionism
Existentialism
German Idealism
Hegelianism
Humanism
Kantianism
Logicism
Logical Positivism
Marxism
Modernism
Ordinary Language Philosophy
Phenomenology
Positivism
Post-Modernism
Post-Structuralism
Pragmatism
Rationalism
Romanticism
Structuralism
Transcendentalism
Utilitarianism
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