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Philosophy: The Basics
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  By Individual Philosopher

Major philosophers in alphabetical order:

Abelard, Peter (1079 - 1142) French
Albertus Magnus (c. 1206 - 1280) German
Anaxagoras (c. 500 - 428 B.C.) Greek
Anaximander (c. 610 - 546 B.C.) Greek
Anaximenes (c. 585 - 525 B.C.) Greek
Anselm, St. (1033 - 1109) Italian
Aquinas, St. Thomas (1225 - 1274) Italian
Aristotle (384 - 322 B.C.) Greek
Augustine of Hippo, St. (A.D. 354 - 430) Roman
AverroŰs (1126 - 1198) Spanish-Arabic
Avicenna (980 - 1037) Persian
Ayer, Alfred (1910 - 1989) English
Bacon, Roger (c. 1214 - 1294) English
Bacon, Sir Francis (1561 - 1626) English
Bentham, Jeremy (1749 - 1832) English
Berkeley, Bishop George (1685 - 1753) Irish
Boethius (c. A.D. 480 - 525) Roman
Burke, Edmund (1729 - 1797) Irish
Cicero, Marcus Tullius (106 - 43 B.C.) Roman
Comte, Auguste (1798 - 1857) French
Democritus (c. 460 - 370 B.C.) Greek
Derrida, Jacques (1930 - 2004) French
Descartes, RenÚ (1596 - 1650) French
Dewey, John (1859 - 1952) American
Diogenes of Sinope (c. 412 - 323 B.C.) Greek
Emerson, Ralph Waldo (1803 - 1882) American
Empedocles (c. 490 - 430 B.C.) Greek
Epictetus (c. A.D. 55 - 135) Greek-Roman
Epicurus (341 - 270 B.C.) Greek
Erasmus, Desiderius (1466 - 1536) Dutch
Fichte, Johann Gottlieb (1762 - 1814) German
Foucault, Michel (1926 - 1984) French
Frege, Gottlob (1848 - 1925) German
Gorgias (c. 487 - 376 B.C.) Greek
Hegel, G.W.F. (1770 - 1831) German
Heidegger, Martin (1889 - 1976) German
Heraclitus (c. 535 - 475 B.C.) Greek
Hobbes, Thomas (1588 - 1679) English
Hume, David (1711 - 1776) Scottish
Husserl, Edmund (1859 - 1938) German
James, William (1842 - 1910) American
Kant, Immanuel (1724 - 1804) German
Kierkegaard, S°ren (1813 - 1855) Danish
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm (1646 - 1716) German
Locke, John (1632 - 1704) English
Machiavelli, Niccol˛ (1469 - 1527) Italian
Maimonides (1135 - 1204) Spanish-Jewish
Malebranche, Nicolas (1638 - 1715) French
Marcus Aurelius (A.D. 121 -180) Roman
Marx, Karl (1818 - 1883) German
Mill, John Stuart (1806 - 1873) English
Moore, George Edward (1873 - 1958) English
More, Sir Thomas (1478 - 1535) English
Nietzsche, Friedrich (1844 - 1900) German
Ockham (Occam), William of (c. 1285 - 1348) English
Parmenides of Elea (c. 515 - 450 B.C.) Greek
Pascal, Blaise (1623 - 1662) French
Peirce, Charles Sanders (1839 - 1914) American
Philo of Alexandria (20 B.C. - A.D. 50) Egyptian-Jewish
Plato (c. 428 - 348 B.C.) Greek
Plotinus (A.D. 205 - 270) Egyptian-Greek
Protagoras (c. 490 - 420 B.C.) Greek
Pyrrho (c. 360 - 270 B.C.) Greek
Pythagoras (c. 570 - 490 B.C.) Greek
Quine, Willard Van Orman (1908 - 2000) American
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques (1712 - 1778) Swiss-French
Russell, Bertrand (1872 - 1970) English
Ryle, Gilbert (1900 - 1976) English
Sartre, Jean-Paul (1905 - 1980) French
Schelling, Friedrich (1775 - 1854) German
Schopenhauer, Arthur (1788 - 1860) German
Scotus, John Duns (c. 1266 - 1308) Scottish
Smith, Adam (1723 - 1790) Scottish
Socrates (464 - 399 B.C.) Greek
Spinoza, Baruch (Benedict) (1623 - 1677) Dutch-Jewish
Thales of Miletos (c. 624 - 546 B.C.) Greek
Thoreau, Henry David (1817 - 1862) American
Voltaire (Franšois Marie Arouet) (1694 - 1778) French
Whitehead, Alfred North (1861 - 1947) English
Wittgenstein, Ludwig (1889 - 1951) Austrian
Zeno of Citium (334 - 262 B.C.) Greek
Zeno of Elea (c. 490 - 430 B.C.) Greek

For a chronological analysis of this list of major philosophers, see the section By Historical Period.

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